Seasonality of hypoosmolar hyponatremia in medical inpatients - data from a nationwide cohort study.

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Hyponatremia is the most prevalent electrolyte disturbance in hospitalized patients. Previous studies have shown a seasonal variation of profound hyponatremia with higher prevalence during warmer months.This study aimed at analyzing the seasonal prevalence, sex and age-specific differences of hyponatremia in medical inpatients.Nationwide cohort study from January 2009 and December 2015 using prospective administrative data.Medical inpatients.Diagnosis of hypoosmolar hyponatremia.The primary outcome was the monthly alteration in hyponatremia prevalence. Secondary outcomes were the association of outdoor temperature with hyponatremia prevalence and differences among sex and age groups.Of 2,426,722 medical inpatients, 84,210 were diagnosed with hypoosmolar hyponatremia, of whom 61% (n=51,262) were female. The highest overall prevalence of hyponatremia was observed in July (4.5%, n=8,976), it was lowest in December (2.7%, n=6,530). The overall prevalence of hyponatremia in women compared to men was higher by 58% (OR 1.58 [95% CI 1.56 to 1.60]). The sex-specific difference was most pronounced in the warmest month of July (mean temperature 20.1°C, OR 1.76 [95% CI 1.68 to 1.84]). We observed the strongest association between seasonality and hyponatremia in elderly (>80 years) female inpatients admitted during the month of July (OR 2.40 [95% CI 2.20 to 2.62]).The prevalence of diagnosed hypoosmolar hyponatremia in medical inpatients increases during summer months with higher outdoor temperature. Elderly female inpatients were most susceptible to the seasonal rise in hyponatremia prevalence.

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