The annual risk among patients with diabetes of reaching end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is largely unknown worldwide. This study aimed to compare the incidence of diabetes-related ESRD by creating a global atlas during 2000-2015.The annual incidence of ESRD among patients with diabetes was calculated as the quotient of the number of incident ESRD patients with diabetes divided by the total number of patients with diabetes after subtraction of the number with existing ESRD. The estimated ESRD prevalence and annual incidence were validated with use of the data provided by Fresenius Medical Care, Germany, and previously reported data, respectively.Data were obtained from 142 countries, covering 97.3% of the world population. The global percentage of the prevalent ESRD patients with diabetes increased from 19.0% in 2000 to 29.7% in 2015 worldwide, while the percentage of incident ESRD patients due to diabetes increased from 22.1% to 31.3%. The global annual incidence of ESRD among patients with diabetes increased from 375.8 to 1,016.0/million with diabetes during 2000-2015. The highest average rates were observed in the Western Pacific Region. Comparatively, the rates of incident ESRD among European patients with diabetes ranged from one-half (309.2 vs. 544.6) to one-third (419.4 vs. 1,245.2) of the rates of the Western Pacific population during 2000-2015.Great and nonrandom geographic variation in the annual rates among patients with diabetes of reaching ESRD suggests that distinct health care, environmental, and/or genetic factors contribute to the progression of diabetic kidney disease. Measures to prevent and treat diabetes-related ESRD require better patient susceptibility stratification.