When does postural instability appear in monogenic parkinsonisms? An individual-patient meta-analysis.

Postural instability is a disease milestone signaling advanced disease.To estimate the onset of postural instability in monogenic parkinsonisms.We systematically reviewed studies (PubMed 1996-2017) in SNCA, PRKN, PINK1, DJ-1, LRRK2, ATP13A2, FBXO7, VPS35, DNAJC6, or SYNJ1-related monogenic parkinsonisms, with documented postural instability. Genes with ≥ 15 patients were included in an individual-patient meta-analysis and compared with a retrospectively collected sporadic Parkinson's disease cohort from our center. The primary outcome measure was the progression-free survival from postural instability using Kaplan-Meier survival curves. Cox proportional hazards analyses were summarized using hazards ratio (HR).Of 2085 eligible studies, 124 met full criteria (636 patients) for the systematic review, whereas a total of 871 subjects (270 from sporadic cohort, 601 monogenic parkinsonisms) were included in the individual-patient meta-analysis. Postural instability was reported in 80% of DJ-1, 40% of PRKN, 39% of PINK1, 34% of ATP13A2, 31% of LRRK2, and 29% of SNCA patients. Progression-free survival from postural instability at 10 years after disease onset was longest in ATP13A2 (97%) and shortest in SNCA (50%). Halfway between these two extremes were PRKN (88%), PINK1 (87%), and LRRK2 (81%), similar to sporadic Parkinson's disease (72%). Higher risk of postural instability was observed in SNCA (HR = 3.2, p = 0.007) and DJ-1 (HR = 3.96, p = 0.001) compared to sporadic Parkinson's disease. Young age at onset in PINK1 and female sex in LRRK2 were associated with a decreased risk of postural instability.Monogenic parkinsonisms exhibit differential timelines to postural instability, informing prognostic counseling and interpretation of future genotype-specific treatment trials.

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