What is the meaning of ANCA positivity in IgG4-related disease?

To evaluate the prevalence and meaning of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) positivity in a cohort of IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD).We identified patients with ANCA determination from a retrospective cohort of 69 patients with IgG4-RD. ANCA were measured by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy (IIF) and/or proteinase 3 (PR3)-ANCA and myeloperoxidase (MPO)-ANCA by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). IIF patterns were classified as perinuclear (P-ANCA), cytoplasmic (C-ANCA) and atypical (X-ANCA). We compared the ANCA-positive versus the ANCA-negative IgG4-RD group.Out of 69 patients, 31 IgG4-RD patients had an ANCA determination. Four patients with concomitant systemic autoimmune diseases were excluded. We found positive ANCA by IIF in 14 (56%) of 25 patients tested. The most common IIF pattern was C-ANCA in eight (57.1%), followed by dual C-ANCA/X-ANCA in four (28.6%) and P-ANCA and dual C-ANCA/P-ANCA in one each (7.1%). Of the 20 patients with ANCA determination by both IIF and ELISA, four have positive ANCA by ELISA (three for MPO-ANCA and one for PR3-ANCA). Of the two patients with only ELISA determination, one was positive for MPO-ANCA. The prevalence of ANCA positivity by ELISA was 22.7% (5 out of 22 patients). ANCA was more frequent in the Mikulizc/systemic phenotype (42.9%) compared to other phenotypes (p = 0.04). ANCA-positive IgG4-RD patients had more frequently lymph node and kidney involvement, high IgG1 levels and erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and positive antinuclear antibodies.ANCA are found in a significant number of patients with IgG4-RD and differed from the ANCA-negative group in terms of clinical and serological features.

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