The advent of new methods of male contraception would increase contraceptive options for men and women and advance male contraceptive agency. Pharmaceutical R&D for male contraception has been dormant since the 1990's. The Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) has supported a contraceptive development program since 1969 and supports most ongoing hormonal male contraceptive development. Non-hormonal methods are in earlier stages of development.Several hormonal male contraceptive agents have entered clinical trials. Novel single agent products being evaluated include Dimethandrolone Undecanoate (DMAU), 11β-methyl-nortestosterone dodecylcarbonate (11β-MNTDC), and 7α-methyl-19-nortestosterone (MENT). A contraceptive efficacy trial of Nestorone® (NES)/testosterone (T) gel is underway. Potential non-hormonal methods are at preclinical stages of development. Many non-hormonal male contraceptive targets that affect sperm production, sperm function, or sperm transport have been identified.NICHD supports development of reversible male contraceptive agents. Other organizations such as the World Health Organization, the Population Council, and The Male Contraception Initiative are pursuing male contraceptive development, but industry involvement remains limited.