TRIM24-RIP3 axis perturbation accelerates osteoarthritis pathogenesis.

Recently, necroptosis has attracted increasing attention in arthritis research; however, it remains unclear whether its regulation is involved in osteoarthritis (OA) pathogenesis. Since receptor-interacting protein kinase-3 (RIP3) plays a pivotal role in necroptosis and its dysregulation is involved in various pathological processes, we investigated the role of the RIP3 axis in OA pathogenesis.Experimental OA was induced in wild-type or Rip3 knockout mice by surgery to destabilise the medial meniscus (DMM) or the intra-articular injection of adenovirus carrying a target gene (Ad-Rip3 and Ad-Trim24 shRNA). RIP3 expression was examined in OA cartilage from human patients; Trim24, a negative regulator of RIP3, was identified by microarray and in silico analysis. Connectivity map (CMap) and in silico binding approaches were used to identify RIP3 inhibitors and to examine their direct regulation of RIP3 activation in OA pathogenesis.RIP3 expression was markedly higher in damaged cartilage from patients with OA than in undamaged cartilage. In the mouse model, adenoviral RIP3 overexpression accelerated cartilage disruption, whereas Rip3 depletion reduced DMM-induced OA pathogenesis. Additionally, TRIM24 knockdown upregulated RIP3 expression; its downregulation promoted OA pathogenesis in knee joint tissues. The CMap approach and in silico binding assay identified AZ-628 as a potent RIP3 inhibitor and demonstrated that it abolished RIP3-mediated OA pathogenesis by inhibiting RIP3 kinase activity.TRIM24-RIP3 axis perturbation promotes OA chronicity by activating RIP3 kinase, suggesting that the therapeutic manipulation of this pathway could provide new avenues for treating OA.

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