Tobacco Treatment Program Models in US Hospitals and Outpatient Centers.

As tobacco use remains one of the leading causes of disease, disability, and mortality, tobacco treatment programs should be integrated into medical systems, such as hospitals and outpatient centers. Medical providers have a unique, high-impact opportunity to initiate smoking cessation treatment with patients. However, there are several barriers that may hinder the development and implementation of these programs. The purpose of this review is to address such barriers by illustrating several examples of successful tobacco treatment programs in US healthcare systems that were contributed by the authors. This will include describing treatment models, billing procedures, and implementation considerations. Using an illustrative review of vignettes from existing programs, various models are outlined, emphasizing commonalities and unique features, strengths and limitations, resources necessary, and other relevant considerations. In addition, clinical research and dissemination trials from each program are described to provide evidence of feasibility and efficacy from these programs. This overview of example treatment models designed for hospitals and outpatient centers provides guidelines for any emerging tobacco cessation services within these contexts. For existing treatment programs, this review provides additional insight and ideas about improving these programs within their respective medical systems.

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