Aspirin is the most commonly used medication worldwide. Beside its well-known anti-inflammatory effects, a role has emerged in the prevention of cardiovascular events. However, a significant benefit has been demonstrated in secondary cardiovascular prevention only, while there is limited evidence supporting a role in primary prevention. This discrepancy might depend on the that so far, the high-risk populations that will achieve the greatest benefits yet experiencing minimal harmful side effects have not been identified. Patients with autoimmune systemic rheumatic diseases have an increased risk of cardiovascular complications compared with the general population, which makes aspirin of potential value in these subjects. Moving from general aspects of aspirin pharmacology and specific issues in general population, the aim of this study is to review the evidence about the role of low-dose aspirin in primary cardiovascular prevention in autoimmune systemic rheumatic diseases.