Hyperdiploidy (HRD) and specific IGH translocations are primary chromosomal abnormalities (CA) in multiple myeloma (MM). In this retrospective study of 794 MM patients we aimed to investigate clinical features and common CA including gain(1q) in separate subgroups defined by primary CA. In the entire group, we confirmed that gain(1q) was associated with short time to next treatment and adverse overall survival (OS). The impact was worse for four or more copies of 1q21 as compared to three copies. However, in a subgroup of patients with clonal gain(11q) and without known primary IGH translocations (CG11q), already three copies of 1q21 were associated with a poor outcome; in the absence of gain(1q), patients in this subgroup had a remarkably long median OS of more than nine years. These cases were associated with HRD, coexpression of CD56 and CD117, male gender, and IgG subtype. In non-CG11q patients, four or more copies of 1q21 (but not three copies) had a significant adverse impact on outcome. Several associations with CA and clinical findings were observed for the defined subgroups. As an example, we found a predominance of early tetraploidy, plasma cell leukemia, and female gender in the t(14;16) subgroup. Our results underscore the importance of subgrouping in MM. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.