To explore the effects of empagliflozin on the incidence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and its effects on metabolic, cardiovascular (CV), and renal outcomes among participants with or without OSA in the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Participants with diabetes and CV disease were randomized to empagliflozin (10 and 25 mg) or placebo daily in addition to standard of care. OSA was assessed by investigator report using Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities version 18.0, and CV outcomes were independently adjudicated. Analyses were performed using multivariable-adjusted Cox regression models.
OSA was reported in 391 of 7,020 (5.6%) participants at baseline. Those with OSA were more likely to be male (83 vs. 71%) and to have moderate-severe obesity (BMI ≥35 kg/m2; 55 vs. 18%). Over a median of 3.1 years, empagliflozin had similar placebo-adjusted reductions in HbA1c, waist circumference, and systolic blood pressure, regardless of OSA status, but a larger effect on weight (adjusted mean ± SE difference at week 52: OSA vs. no OSA -2.9 ± 0.5 vs. -1.9 ± 0.1 kg). Incidence of 3-point major adverse CV events, CV death, heart failure hospitalization, and incident or worsening nephropathy in the placebo group was 1.2-2.0-fold higher for those with baseline OSA compared with those without. Empagliflozin significantly reduced the risk for outcomes regardless of OSA status (P-interaction all > 0.05). Fifty patients reported a new diagnosis of OSA through 7 days after medication discontinuation, and this occurred less often with empagliflozin treatment (hazard ratio 0.48 [95% CI 0.27, 0.83]).
In EMPA-REG OUTCOME, participants with OSA had greater comorbidity and higher frequency of CV and renal events. Empagliflozin had favorable effects on risk factors and CV and renal outcomes regardless of preexisting OSA and may also reduce the risk for new-onset OSA.