The effects of dapagliflozin, metformin or exercise on glycaemic variability in overweight or obese individuals with prediabetes (the PRE-D Trial): a multi-arm, randomised, controlled trial.

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We aimed to investigate the short-term efficacy and safety of three glucose-lowering interventions in overweight or obese individuals with prediabetes defined by HbA1c.The PRE-D Trial was a randomised, controlled, parallel, multi-arm, open-label, non-blinded trial performed at Steno Diabetes Center Copenhagen, Gentofte, Denmark. One hundred and twenty participants with BMI ≥25 kg/m2, 30-70 years of age, and prediabetes (HbA1c 39-47 mmol/mol [5.7-6.4%]) were randomised 1:1:1:1 to dapagliflozin (10 mg once daily), metformin (1700 mg daily), interval-based exercise (5 days/week, 30 min/session) or control (habitual lifestyle). Participants were examined at baseline and at 6, 13 and 26 weeks after randomisation. The primary outcome was the 13 week change in glycaemic variability (calculated as mean amplitude of glycaemic excursions [MAGE]) determined using a continuous glucose monitoring system (pre-specified minimal clinically important difference in MAGE ∼30%).One hundred and twelve participants attended the examination at 13 weeks and 111 attended the follow-up visit at 26 weeks. Compared with the control group, there was a small decrease in MAGE in the dapagliflozin group (17.1% [95% CI 0.7, 30.8], p = 0.042) and a small, non-significant, reduction in the exercise group (15.3% [95% CI -1.2, 29.1], p = 0.067), whereas MAGE was unchanged in the metformin group (0.1% [95% CI -16.1, 19.4], p = 0.991)). Compared with the metformin group, MAGE was 17.2% (95% CI 0.8, 30.9; p = 0.041) lower in the dapagliflozin group and 15.4% (95% CI -1.1, 29.1; p = 0.065) lower in the exercise group after 13 weeks, with no difference between exercise and dapagliflozin (2.2% [95% CI -14.8, 22.5], p = 0.815). One serious adverse event occurred in the control group (lung cancer).Treatment with dapagliflozin and interval-based exercise lead to similar but small improvements in glycaemic variability compared with control and metformin therapy. The clinical importance of these findings in prediabetes is NCT02695810 FUNDING: The study was funded by the Novo Nordisk Foundation, AstraZeneca AB, the Danish Innovation Foundation, the University of Copenhagen and Ascensia Diabetes Care Denmark ApS Graphical abstract.

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