Temporal Trends in Incident Hospitalization for Diabetes-Related Foot Ulcer in Type 2 Diabetes: The Fremantle Diabetes Study.

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To determine whether, reflecting trends in other chronic complications, incident hospitalization for diabetes-related foot ulcer (DFU) has declined over recent decades in type 2 diabetes.Participants with type 2 diabetes from the community-based Fremantle Diabetes Study phases I (FDS1; 1,296 participants, mean age 64.0 years, 48.6% males, recruited 1993-1996) and II (FDS2; 1,509 participants, mean age 65.4 years, 51.8% males, recruited 2008-2011) were followed from entry to first hospitalization for/with DFU, death, or 5 years (whichever came first). Incident rate ratios (IRRs) and incident rate differences (IRDs) were calculated for FDS2 versus FDS1 overall and in 10-year age-groups. Cox proportional hazards modeling determined independent predictors of first DFU hospitalization in the combined cohort.Incident DFU hospitalization (95% CI) was 1.9 (0.9-3.3)/1,000 person-years in FDS1 during 5,879 person-years of follow-up and 4.5 (3.0-6.4)/1,000 person-years in FDS2 during 6,915 person-years of follow-up. The crude IRR (95% CI) was 2.40 (1.17-5.28) (P = 0.013) and IRD 2.6 (0.7-4.5)/1,000 person-years (P = 0.010). The highest IR for any age-group was 23.6/1,000 person-years in FDS2 participants aged 31-40 years. Age at diabetes diagnosis (inverse), HbA1c, insulin use, height, ln(urinary albumin/creatinine), absence of any foot pulse, previous peripheral revascularization, and peripheral sensory neuropathy (PSN) were independent predictors of incident hospitalization for/with DFU.Incident DFU hospitalizations complicating type 2 diabetes increased between FDS phases, especially in younger participants, and were more likely in those with PSN, peripheral arterial disease, and suboptimal glycemic control at baseline.

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