Recent studies have demonstrated that maternal anti-CD36 antibodies represent a frequent cause of fetal/neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT) in Asian and African populations. However, little is known about the pathomechanism and antenatal treatment of anti-CD36-mediated FNAIT. Here, we established a novel animal model to examine the clinical features of pups from immunized Cd36-/- female mice after breeding with wild-type male mice. Mild thrombocytopenia was observed, but high pup mortality was also documented (40.26%). IVIG (1 g/kg) administration on days 7, 12, and 17 to immunized Cd36-/- mothers after breeding reduced fetal death (12.70%). However, delaying the IVIG administration series on days 10, 15, and 20 did not reduce fetal death (40.00%). In contrast, injection of deglycosylated anti-CD36 (deg-anti-CD36) polyclonal antibodies (5 mg/kg) on days 10, 15, and 20 significantly reduced fetal death (5.26%). Subsequently, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against mouse CD36 were developed, and one clone producing high-affinity anti-CD36 (termed 32-106) effectively inhibited maternal antibody binding and was therefore selected. Using the same approach of deg-anti-CD36, the administration of deg-32-106 significantly reduced fetal death (2.17%). Furthermore, immunized Cd36-/- mothers showed placenta deficiency. Accordingly, maternal anti-CD36 antibodies inhibited angiogenesis of placenta endothelial cells, which could be restored by deg-32-106. In summary, maternal anti-CD36 antibodies caused a high frequency of fetal death in our animal model, associated with placental dysfunction. This deleterious effect could be diminished by the antenatal administration of IVIG and deg-mAb 32-106. Interestingly, treatment with deg-32-106 appears more beneficial considering the lower dose, later start of treatment, and therapy success.
Xiuzhang Xu, Dawei Chen, Xin Ye, Wenjie Xia, Yaori Xu, Yangkai Chen, Yuan Shao, Jing Deng, Haoqiang Ding, Jing Liu, Jiali Wang, Heyu Ni, Yongshui Fu, Sentot Santoso