SRY-negative 46,XX testicular/ovotesticular DSD: long-term outcome and early blockade of gonadotropic axis.

SRY-negative 46,XX testicular and ovotesticular disorders/differences of sex development (T/OTDSD) represent a very rare and unique DSD condition where testicular tissue develops in the absence of a Y chromosome. To date, very few studies have described the phenotype, clinical and surgical management and long-term outcomes of these patients. Particularly, early blockade of the gonadotropic axis in patients raised in the female gender to minimize postnatal androgenization has never been reported.Retrospective description of sixteen 46,XX T/OTDSD patients.Sixteen 46,XX SRY-negative T/OTDSD were included. Most (12/16) were diagnosed in the neonatal period. Sex of rearing was male for six patients and female for ten, while the clinical presentation varied, with an external masculinization score from 1 to 10. Five patients raised as girl were successfully treated with GnRH analog to avoid virilization during minipuberty. Ovotestes/testes were found bilaterally for 54% of the patients and unilaterally for the others (with a contralateral ovary). Gonadal surgery preserved appropriate tissue in the majority of cases. Spontaneous puberty occurred in two girls and one boy, while two boys required hormonal induction of puberty. One of the girls conceived spontaneously and had an uneventful pregnancy. DNA analyses (SNP-array, Next-Generation Sequencing and Whole-Exome Sequencing) were performed. A heterozygous frameshit mutation in the NR2F2 gene was identified in one patient.This study presents a population of patients with 46,XX SRY-negative T/OTDSD. Early blockade of gonadotropic axis appears efficient to reduce and avoid further androgenization in patients raised as girls.

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