Spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs), formerly known as autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxias (ADCAs), are a group of hereditary heterogeneous neurodegenerative diseases. Gait, progressive ataxia, dysarthria, and eye movement disorder are common symptoms of spinocerebellar ataxias. Other symptoms include peripheral neuropathy, cognitive impairment, psychosis, and seizures. Patients may lose their lives due to out of coordinated respiration and/or swallowing. Neurological signs cover pyramidal or extrapyramidal signs, spasm, ophthalmoplegia, hyperactive deep tendon reflexes, and so on. Different subtypes of SCAs present various clinical features. Spinocerebellar ataxia type 23 (SCA23), one subtype of the SCA family, is characterized by mutant prodynorphin (PDYN) gene. Based on literatures, this review details a series of SCA23, to improve a whole understanding of clinicians and point out the potential research direction of this dysfunction, including a history, pathophysiological mechanism, diagnosis and differential diagnosis, epigenetics, penetrance and prevalence, genetic counseling, treatment and prognosis.