Pathological mechanisms of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) remain largely unexplored. Effective treatment of PAH remains a challenge. The aim of this study was to discover the underlying mechanism of PAH through functional metabolomics and to help develop new strategies for prevention and treatment of PAH.Metabolomic profiling of plasma in patients with idiopathic PAH was evaluated through HPLC-MS, with spermine identified to be the most significant and validated in another independent cohort. The roles of spermine and spermine synthase (SMS) were examined in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) and rodent models of pulmonary hypertension.Using targeted metabolomics, plasma spermine levels were found to be higher in patients with idiopathic PAH compared to healthy controls. Spermine administration promoted proliferation and migration of PASMCs and exacerbated vascular remodelling in rodent models of pulmonary hypertension. The spermine-mediated deteriorative effect can be attributed to a corresponding upregulation of its synthase (SMS) in the pathological process. Inhibition of SMS in vitro suppressed platelet-derived growth factor-BB-mediated proliferation of PASMCs, and in vivo attenuated monocrotaline-mediated pulmonary hypertension in rats.Plasma spermine promotes pulmonary vascular remodelling. Inhibiting spermine synthesis could be a therapeutic strategy for PAH.