Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors and the Risk of Below-Knee Amputation: A Multicenter Observational Study.

Reports of amputations associated with sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have been inconsistent. We aimed to compare the risk of below-knee amputation with SGLT2 inhibitors versus dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors among patients with type 2 diabetes.This multicenter observational study used administrative health care databases from seven Canadian provinces and the U.K. Incident SGLT2 inhibitor users were matched to DPP-4 inhibitor users using a prevalent new-user design and time-conditional propensity scores. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate site-specific adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and corresponding 95% CIs of incident below-knee amputation for SGLT2 inhibitor versus DPP-4 inhibitor users. Random effects meta-analyses were used to pool the site-specific results.The study cohort included 207,817 incident SGLT2 inhibitor users matched to 207,817 DPP-4 inhibitor users. During a mean exposed follow-up time of 11 months, the amputation rate was 1.3 per 1,000 person-years among SGLT2 inhibitor users and 1.5 per 1,000 person-years among DPP-4 inhibitor users. The adjusted HR of below-knee amputations associated with SGLT2 inhibitor use compared with DPP-4 inhibitor use was 0.88 (95% CI 0.71-1.09). Similar results were obtained in stratified analyses by specific SGLT2 inhibitor molecule.In this large multicenter observational study, there was no association between SGLT2 inhibitor use and incident below-knee amputations among patients with type 2 diabetes compared with DPP-4 inhibitor use. While these findings provide some reassurance, studies with a longer duration of follow-up are needed to assess potential long-term effects.

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