To assess the weight of socio-economic status (SES) on the occurrence of skin cancer in the population living in the province of Ferrara, Italy, a retrospective cohort of patients, provided by the local cancer registry, affected with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), basal cell carcinoma (BCC), or melanoma was investigated. The SES was expressed through an ecological-based deprivation index. During the 8-year study period (2006-2013, total persons/years 2,859,137), 6,051 carcinomas (1,535 SCC, 4,365 BCC) and 459 melanomas were diagnosed. Crude and standardised (on the European population) rates and standardised incidence ratio showed a direct correlation between BCC and SES. Multivariate analysis confirmed this, and for melanoma as well, while it showed an excess of SCC incidence in the lowest SES subgroup. This study showed, for the first time, an opposite effect of SES on SCC and BCC occurrence. A role of environmental factors conditioned by SES may be hypothesized.