Recent advances in computed tomography (CT), ultrasound (US), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and nuclear radiology have improved the diagnosis and characterization of small bowel pathology. Our purpose is to highlight the current status and recent advances in multimodality noninvasive imaging of the small bowel.CT and MR enterography are established techniques for small bowel evaluation. Dual-energy CT is a novel technique that has shown promise for the mesenteric ischemia and small bowel bleeding. Advanced US techniques and MRI sequences are being investigated to improve assessment of bowel inflammation, treatment response assessment, motility, and mural fibrosis. Novel radiotracers and scanner technologies have made molecular imaging the new reference standard for small bowel neuroendocrine tumors. Computational image analysis and artificial intelligence (AI) have the potential to augment physician expertise, reduce errors and variability in assessment of the small bowel on imaging.Advances in translational imaging research coupled with progress in imaging technology have led to a wider adoption of cross-sectional imaging for the evaluation and management of small bowel entities. Ongoing developments in image acquisition and postprocessing techniques, molecular imaging and AI have the strongest potential to transform the care and outcomes of patients with small bowel diseases.
Michael C Olson, Patrick J Navin, Christopher L Welle, Ajit H Goenka