The 2016 American Heart Association Scientific Statement on sleep duration and cardiovascular risk suggested that optimal sleep duration is critical for cardiovascular health, with both long and short sleep duration associated with adverse health outcomes. We examined the relation between sleep duration and cardiovascular health among the general population in the United States from 2005 to 2016. We sought to investigate associations between sleep duration and the prevalence of coronary artery disease, heart failure (HF), stroke, hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM), and hyperlipidemia. Using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we identified all patients with HF, coronary artery disease, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, DM, and stroke from 2005 to 2016. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to adjust for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), marital status, educational level, physical activity, sedentary activity, depression, blood pressure, lipid profiles, and hemoglobin. In total, 32,152 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey participants responded to the sleep survey. Both short sleepers (<7 hours, n = 12,027) and long sleepers (>9 hours, n = 1,058) were older and more likely to have a higher BMI than optimal sleepers (7 to 9 hours, n = 19,067; all p values <0.05). After adjusting for confounding variables and in comparison to those with optimal sleep duration, short sleep duration was associated with a higher prevalence of previous stroke (odds ratio [OR] 1.45; 95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.23 to 1.70), HF (OR 1.65; 95% CI 1.40 to 1.95), DM (OR 1.35; 95% CI 1.23 to 1.49), and hyperlipidemia (OR 1.12; 95% CI 1.04 to 1.22), whereas long sleep duration was associated with a higher prevalence of previous stroke (OR 1.81; 95% CI 1.37 to 2.34) and HF (OR 1.47; 95% CI 1.08 to 1.97). In conclusion, both long and short sleep durations were associated with poor cardiovascular health in this cross-sectional study.