Shallow-depth sequencing of cell-free DNA for Hodgkin and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (differential) diagnosis: a standardized approach with underappreciated potential.

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Shallow-depth sequencing of cell-free DNA, a cheap and standardized approach to obtain molecular information on tumors non-invasively, is insufficiently explored for lymphoma diagnosis and disease follow-up. This study collected 318 samples, including longitudinal liquid and paired solid biopsies, from a prospectively recruited cohort of 38 Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and 85 aggressive B-cell non- HL patients, represented by 81 diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) cases. Following sequencing, copy number alterations and viral read fractions were derived and analyzed. At diagnosis, liquid biopsies showed detectable copy number alterations in 84.2% of HL (88.6% for classical HL) and 74.1% of DLBCL patients. Copy number profiles between liquid-solid pairs were highly concordant within DLBCL (r=0.815±0.043); and, compared to tissue, HL liquid biopsies had abnormalities with higher amplitudes (P=.010), implying that tumor DNA is more abundant in plasma. Additionally, 39.5% of HL and 13.6% of DLBCL cases had a significantly elevated number of plasmatic Epstein-Barr virus DNA fragments, achieving a sensitivity of 100% compared to current standard. Longitudinal analysis determined that, when detectable, copy number patterns were similar across (re)staging moments in refractory/relapsed patients. Moreover, the overall profile anomaly highly correlated with the total metabolic tumor volume (P.

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