Sex Disparities in Cardiovascular Outcome Trials of Populations With Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

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Sex differences have been described in diabetes cardiovascular outcome trials (CVOTs).We systematically reviewed for baseline sex differences in cardiovascular (CV) risk factors and CV protection therapy in diabetes CVOTs.Randomized placebo-controlled trials examining the effect of diabetes medications on major adverse cardiovascular events in people ≥18 years of age with type 2 diabetes.Included trials reported baseline sex-specific CV risks and use of CV protection therapy.Two reviewers independently abstracted study data.We included five CVOTs with 46,606 participants. We summarized sex-specific data using mean differences (MDs) and relative risks (RRs) and pooled estimates using random effects meta-analysis. There were fewer women than men in included trials (28.5-35.8% women). Women more often had stroke (RR 1.28; 95% CI 1.09, 1.50), heart failure (RR 1.30; 95% CI 1.21,1.40), and chronic kidney disease (RR 1.33; 95% CI 1.17; 1.51). They less often used statins (RR 0.90; 95% CI 0.86, 0.93), aspirin (RR 0.82; 95% CI 0.71, 0.95), and β-blockers (RR 0.93; 95% CI 0.88, 0.97) and had a higher systolic blood pressure (MD 1.66 mmHg; 95% CI 0.90, 2.41), LDL cholesterol (MD 0.34 mmol/L; 95% CI 0.29, 0.39), and hemoglobin A1c (MD 0.11%; 95% CI 0.09, 0.14 [1.2 mmol/mol; 1.0, 1.5]) than men.We could not carry out subgroup analyses due to the small number of studies. Our study is not generalizable to low CV risk groups nor to patients in routine care.There were baseline sex disparities in diabetes CVOTs. We suggest efforts to recruit women into trials and promote CV management across the sexes.

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