Serum inflammation-based scores reflect systemic inflammatory response and/or patients' nutritional status, and may predict clinical outcomes in cancer. While these are well-described and increasingly used in different cancers, their clinical usefulness in the management of patients with endocrine tumors is less known.A comprehensive PubMed search was performed using the terms "endocrine tumor", "inflammation", "serum inflammation-based score", "inflammatory-based score", "inflammatory response-related scoring", "systemic inflammatory response markers", "Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio", "Neutrophil-to-platelet ratio", "Lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio", "Glasgow Prognostic Score", "Neutrophil-Platelet Score", "Systemic Immune-Inflammation Index", and "Prognostic Nutrition Index" in clinical studies.The Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio and the Platelet-to-Lymphocyte Ratio are the ones most extensively investigated in patients with endocrine tumors. Other scores have also been considered in some studies. Several studies focused in finding whether serum inflammatory biomarkers may stratify the endocrine tumor patients' risk and detect those at risk for developing more aggressive and/or refractory disease, particularly after endocrine surgery.In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on the different serum inflammation-based scores and their usefulness in predicting the phenotype, clinical aggressiveness, disease outcomes and prognosis in patients with endocrine tumors. The value of such serum inflammation-based scores in the management of patients with endocrine tumors has been emerging over the last decade. However, further research is necessary to establish useful markers and their cut-offs for routine clinical practice for individual diseases.
Pedro Marques, Friso de Vries, Olaf M Dekkers, Márta Korbonits, Nienke R Biermasz, Alberto M Pereira