Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is an established treatment for type 2 diabetes and obesity. The study objective was to establish RYGB's effects on glycemic variability (GV) and hypoglycemia.This was a prospective observational study of 10 participants with obesity and prediabetes or type 2 diabetes who underwent RYGB. Patients were studied before RYGB (Pre) and 1 month, 1 year, and 2 years postsurgery with continuous glucose measurement (CGM). A mixed-meal test (MMT) was conducted at Pre, 1 month, and 1 year.After RYGB, mean CGM decreased (at 1 month, 1 year, and 2 years), and GV increased (at 1 year and 2 years). Five of the 10 participants had a percent time in range (%TIR) <3.0 mmol/L (54 mg/dL) greater than the international consensus target of 1% at 1 or 2 years. Peak glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucagon area under the curve during MMT were positively and negatively associated, respectively, with contemporaneous %TIR <3.0 mmol/L.Patients undergoing RYGB are at risk for development of postbariatric hypoglycemia due to a combination of reduced mean glucose level, increased GV, and increased GLP-1 response.