Risk of drug-induced interstitial lung disease in hospitalised patients: a nested case-control study.

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Information on drug-induced interstitial lung disease (DILD) is limited due to its low incidence. This study investigated the frequencies of drug categories with potential risk in patients developing DILD during hospitalisation and analysed the risk of developing DILD associated with each of these drugs.Using a Japanese national inpatient database, we identified patients without interstitial pneumonia on admission who developed DILD and required corticosteroid therapy during hospitalisation from July 2010 to March 2016. We conducted a nested case-control study; four controls from the entire non-DILD patient cohort were matched to each DILD case on age, sex, main diagnosis, admission year and hospital. We defined 42 classified categories of drugs with 216 generic names as drugs with potential risk of DILD, and we identified the use of these drugs during hospitalisation for each patient. We analysed the association between each drug category and DILD development using conditional logistic regression analyses.We retrospectively identified 2342 patients who developed DILD. After one-to-four case-control matching, 1541 case patients were matched with 5677 control patients. Six drug categories were significantly associated with the increased occurrence of DILD. These included epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors (OR: 16.84, 95% CI 9.32 to 30.41) and class III antiarrhythmic drugs (OR: 7.01, 95% CI 3.86 to 12.73). Statins were associated with reduced risk of DILD (OR: 0.68, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.92).We demonstrated significant associations between various drug categories and DILD. Our findings provide useful information on drug categories with potential risk to help physicians prevent and treat DILD.

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Authors: Taisuke Jo, Nobuaki Michihata, Hayato Yamana, Kojiro Morita, Miho Ishimaru, Yasuhiro Yamauchi, Wakae Hasegawa, Hirokazu Urushiyama, Kazuaki Uda, Hiroki Matsui, Kiyohide Fushimi, Hideo Yasunaga, Takahide Nagase


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