Response assessment in paediatric high-grade glioma: recommendations from the Response Assessment in Pediatric Neuro-Oncology (RAPNO) working group.

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Response criteria for paediatric high-grade glioma vary historically and across different cooperative groups. The Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology working group developed response criteria for adult high-grade glioma, but these were not created to meet the unique challenges in children with the disease. The Response Assessment in Pediatric Neuro-Oncology (RAPNO) working group, consisting of an international panel of paediatric and adult neuro-oncologists, clinicians, radiologists, radiation oncologists, and neurosurgeons, was established to address issues and unique challenges in assessing response in children with CNS tumours. We established a subcommittee to develop response assessment criteria for paediatric high-grade glioma. Current practice and literature were reviewed to identify major challenges in assessing the response of paediatric high-grade gliomas to various treatments. For areas in which scientific investigation was scarce, consensus was reached through an iterative process. RAPNO response assessment recommendations include the use of MRI of the brain and the spine, assessment of clinical status, and the use of corticosteroids or antiangiogenics. Imaging standards for brain and spine are defined. Compared with the recommendations for the management of adult high-grade glioma, for paediatrics there is inclusion of diffusion-weighted imaging and a higher reliance on T2-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion recovery. Consensus recommendations and response definitions have been established and, similar to other RAPNO recommendations, prospective validation in clinical trials is warranted.

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