Elevated liver fibrosis markers are associated with worse prognosis in acute heart failure (AHF). The aspartate aminotransferase to alanine aminotransferase ratio (AAR) is one such fibrosis marker, and low ALT is a surrogate marker of malnutrition. Here, we evaluated the association between AAR and nutritional status and prognosis in patients with AHF. Consecutive 774 patients who were admitted due to AHF were divided into 3 groups according to AAR at discharge: first tertile, AAR<1.16 (n=262); second tertile, 1.16≤AAR<1.70 (n=257); and third tertile, AAR≥1.70 (n=255). Nutritional indices and a composite of all-cause death or HF rehospitalization were compared among the 3 tertiles. Patients in the third AAR tertile were older and had lower body mass index than patients in other AAR tertiles. A higher AAR was associated with worse nutritional indices (i.e., controlling nutritional status score, geriatric nutritional risk index and prognostic nutritional index). Clinical outcome rates significantly increased along AAR tertiles (first tertile, 28%; second tertile, 43%; third tertile, 58%, P<0.001). Cox proportional hazards models including potential prognostic factors revealed high AAR was an independent prognostic factor of AHF. In conclusion, AAR at discharge may be associated with nutritional status and worse clinical outcomes in patients with AHF.