Rates of Intestinal Resection and Colectomy in Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients after Initiation of Biologics: A Cohort Study.

50% to 80% Crohn's disease (CD) and 10% to 30% ulcerative colitis (UC) patients require surgery over their lifetime. Biologic therapies may alter this natural history, but data on the effect of biologics on surgery rates in this patient population are mixed. We sought to investigate the influence of biologics on surgery prevalence in CD and UC.We used a commercial database (Explorys Inc, Cleveland, OH), which includes electronic health record data from 26 major integrated US healthcare systems. We identified all patients who were diagnosed with CD or UC that were treated with any biologics between 2015 and 2020. The primary outcome was to examine the association between biologics therapy and the prevalence of bowel resection. Also, we identified the factors associated with surgery in IBD patients on biologics.Of 32,904,480 patients in the database, we identified 140,540 patients with CD and 115,260 patients with UC, of whom 25,840 (18%) and 9,050 (7.8%) patients received biologics, respectively. The prevalence of intestinal resection was significantly lower in biologics-treated CD patients (9.3%) compared to those who did not receive biologics (12.1%), (p<0.001) Similarly, biologic-treated UC patients were significantly less likely to undergo colectomy (7.3%) compared to UC patients who did not receive biologic therapy (11.0%), (p<0.001). Tobacco use, Clostridium difficile infection, and perianal disease were associated with intestinal resection in CD. Colon neoplasm and Clostridium difficile infection were associated with colectomy in UC.In this study of a large healthcare administrative database, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients treated with biologics were significantly less likely to undergo bowel resection when compared to those who never received biologics. This data suggests that biologics may impact surgical rates in IBD.

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