Anti-Ro52 antibody often co-occurs with anti-Jo1 antibody in antisynthetase syndrome and their co-occurrence correlates with a more aggressive clinical phenotype and poorer prognosis. The strong association of anti-Ro52 antibody with anti-melanoma differentiation-associated protein-5 (anti-MDA5) antibody has been indicated in juvenile myositis. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical significance of anti-Ro52 antibody in a cohort of adult patients with anti-MDA5-positive clinically amyopathic dermatomyositis with interstitial lung disease (CADM-ILD).We assessed a cohort of 83 consecutive patients with anti-MDA5-positive CADM-ILD. Anti-MDA5 antibodies and anti-Ro52 antibodies were detected in immunoblotting and semi-quantitatively analysed by densitometry. Clinical features and the 24 month survival were compared between anti-MDA5-positive patients with and without anti-Ro52 antibodies.Anti-Ro52 antibodies were found in 74.7% of anti-MDA5-positive CADM-ILD patients and were associated with an increased frequency of rapidly progressive interstitial lung disease (RP-ILD; 54.8% vs 23.8%; P = 0.014) and cutaneous ulcerations (27.4% vs 4.8%; P = 0.033). The cumulative 24 month survival rate tended to be lower in patients with anti-Ro52 antibodies than patients without (59.9% vs 85.7%; P = 0.051). The combination of anti-Ro52 antibody status and anti-MDA5 antibody levels further stratified patients' survival rates, showing that the survival rate of patients who were dual positive for anti-MDA5 antibody and anti-Ro52 antibody was significantly lower than patients with mild positive anti-MDA5 antibody alone (59.9% vs 100%; P = 0.019).Anti-Ro52 antibody is highly prevalent in anti-MDA5-positive CADM-ILD patients and their coexistence correlates with a subgroup of patients with more aggressive phenotypes. The combination of anti-MDA5 antibody levels and anti-Ro52 antibody status could help to predict patients' prognosis and guide risk-based therapy.