Prodromal Parkinson disease in patients with idiopathic hyposmia.

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Idiopathic hyposmia (IH) is a prodromal marker of Parkinson disease (PD). However, IH is common in the general population and only a minority will develop PD. Identification of individuals with IH at prodromal stage of PD would serve to select them to implement neuroprotective agents, when available.To identify prodromal PD in IH patients using the Movement Disorders Society (MDS) research criteria for prodromal PD.We applied the MDS research criteria for prodromal PD to 25 consecutive patients older than 50 years who were self-referred for smell loss and had IH, and to 18 controls. A number of risk and prodromal PD markers were assessed in all participants including REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) by video-polysomnography and nigrostriatal dopaminergic dysfunction by DAT-SPECT. After follow-up of 4.7 ± 2.2 years, participants were re-assessed to look for incident PD.Prodromal PD probability was higher in patients than in controls (19.45 ± 34.9% versus 1.74 ± 4.48%; p = 0.019). Four (16%) patients met the criteria of prodromal PD surpassing 80% probability (99.8%, 99.5%, 88.3%, 86.4%). Three (12%) patients had RBD and four (16%) abnormal DAT-SPECT. At the end of follow-up, one (4%) IH patient who had RBD and baseline prodromal PD probability of 86.4% developed PD, while all controls remained disease free.Prodromal PD is infrequent among IH patients. MDS research criteria for prodromal PD are useful to identify a subgroup of IH patients at high risk of PD when RBD is assessed by video-polysomnography and nigrostriatal dopamine deficiency with DAT-SPECT.

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