Prevalence of pulmonary hypertension in adults after atrial switch and role of ventricular filling pressures.

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To assess the prevalence of elevated systemic right ventricular (sRV) end-diastolic pressure and pulmonary arterial hypertension in adults with transposition of the great arteries (TGA) who have undergone atrial switch operation.Forty-two adults (aged ≥18 years) with complete TGA and atrial switch palliation undergoing cardiac catheterisation between 2004 and 2018 at Mayo Clinic, MN, were identified. Clinical, echocardiographic and invasive haemodynamic data were abstracted from the medical charts and procedure logs.Mean age was 37.6±7.9 years; 28 were male (67%). The Mustard operation was performed in 91% of individuals. Mean estimated sRV ejection fraction by echocardiography was 33.3%±10.9% and ≥moderate tricuspid (systemic atrioventricular valve) regurgitation was present in 15 patients (36%). Mean sRV end-diastolic pressure was 13.2±5.4 mm Hg. An sRV end-diastolic pressure >15 mm Hg was present in 35% of individuals whereas a pulmonary artery wedge pressure (PAWP) >15 mm Hg was seen in 59%. Mean pulmonary artery pressure ≥25 mm Hg was seen in 47.5% of patients with PAWP being >15 mm Hg in all but one patient.In adults after atrial switch, elevated sRV end-diastolic pressure was present in only one-third of patients whereas increased PAWP was seen in almost 60%. These findings are most likely related to a combination of decreased pulmonary atrial (functional left atrium) compliance and, in a subset of patients, pulmonary venous baffle obstruction. Elevation in pulmonary pressures was highly prevalent with concomitant elevation in PAWP being present in essentially all patients.


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