Prediction of type 1 diabetes at birth: cord blood metabolites versus genetic risk score in the MoBa cohort.

Genetic markers are established as predictive of type 1 diabetes, but unknown early life environment is believed to be involved. Umbilical cord blood may reflect perinatal metabolism and exposures. We studied whether selected polar metabolites in cord blood contribute to prediction of type 1 diabetes.Using a targeted UHPLC-QQQ-MS platform, we quantified 27 low molecular weight metabolites (including amino acids, small organic acids and bile acids) in 166 children, who later developed type 1 diabetes, and 177 random control children in the Norwegian Mother, Father and Child (MoBa) cohort. We analysed the data using logistic regression (estimating odds ratios per standard deviation [aOR]), area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and k-means clustering. Metabolites were compared to a genetic risk score based on 51 established non-HLA SNPs, and a four-category HLA risk group.The strongest associations for metabolites were aminoadipic acid (aOR=1.23,95%CI:0.97-1.55), indoxyl sulfate (aOR=1.15,95%CI:0.87-1.51), and tryptophan (aOR=0.84,95%CI:0.65-1.10), with other aORs close to 1.0, and none significantly associated with type 1 diabetes. K-means clustering identified six clusters, none of which were associated with type 1 diabetes. Cross-validated AUC showed no predictive value of metabolites (AUC 0.49), while the non-HLA genetic risk score AUC was 0.56 and the HLA risk group AUC was 0.78.In this large study, we found no support of a predictive role of cord blood concentrations of selected bile acids and other small polar metabolites in the development of type 1 diabetes.

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Authors: German Tapia, Tommi Suvitaival, Linda Ahonen, Nicolai A Lund-Blix, Pål R Njølstad, Geir Joner, Torild Skrivarhaug, Cristina Legido-Quigley, Ketil Størdal, Lars C Stene