There has been substantial progress in the knowledge of exercise and type 1 diabetes, with the development of guidelines for optimal glucose management. In addition, an increasing number of people living with type 1 diabetes are pushing their physical limits to compete at the highest level of sport. However, the post-exercise recovery routine, particularly with a focus on sporting performance, has received little attention within the scientific literature, with most of the focus being placed on insulin or nutritional adaptations to manage glycaemia before and during the exercise bout. The post-exercise recovery period presents an opportunity for maximising training adaption and recovery, and the clinical management of glycaemia through the rest of the day and overnight. The absence of clear guidance for the post-exercise period means that people with type 1 diabetes should either develop their own recovery strategies on the basis of individual trial and error, or adhere to guidelines that have been developed for people without diabetes. This Review provides an up-to-date consensus on post-exercise recovery and glucose management for individuals living with type 1 diabetes. We aim to: (1) outline the principles and time course of post-exercise recovery, highlighting the implications and challenges for endurance athletes living with type 1 diabetes; (2) provide an overview of potential strategies for post-exercise recovery that could be used by athletes with type 1 diabetes to optimise recovery and adaptation, alongside improved glycaemic monitoring and management; and (3) highlight the potential for technology to ease the burden of managing glycaemia in the post-exercise recovery period.
Sam N Scott, Federico Y Fontana, Matt Cocks, James P Morton, Asker Jeukendrup, Radu Dragulin, Jørgen F P Wojtaszewski, Jørgen Jensen, Rafael Castol, Michael C Riddell, Christoph Stettler, study of Integrative Biology of Exercise in diabetes