This phase I study (RAD1901-005; NCT02338349) evaluated elacestrant, an investigational oral selective estrogen receptor degrader (SERD), in heavily pretreated women with estrogen receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative metastatic breast cancer, including those with estrogen receptor gene alpha (ESR1) mutation. The primary objective was to determine the maximum tolerated dose and/or recommended phase II dose (RP2D).The study consisted of a 3 + 3 design (elacestrant capsules) followed by expansion at RP2D (400-mg capsules, then 400-mg tablets) for the evaluation of safety and antitumor activity. Elacestrant was taken once daily until progression or intolerability.Of 57 postmenopausal women enrolled, 50 received RP2D (400 mg once daily): median age, 63 years; median three prior anticancer therapies, including cyclin-dependent kinase 4,6 inhibitors (CDK4/6i; 52%), SERD (52%), and ESR1 mutation (circulating tumor DNA; 50%). No dose-limiting toxicities occurred; the most common adverse events at RP2D (400-mg tablet; n = 24) were nausea (33.3%) and increased blood triglycerides and decreased blood phosphorus (25.0% each). Most adverse events were grade 1-2 in severity. The objective response rate was 19.4% (n = 31 evaluable patients receiving RP2D), 15.0% in patients with prior SERD, 16.7% in patients with prior CDK4/6i, and 33.3% in patients with ESR1 mutation (n = 5/15). The clinical benefit rate (24-week) was 42.6% overall (n = 47 patients receiving RP2D), 56.5% (n = 23, ESR1 mutation), and 30.4% (n = 23, prior CDK4/6i). Elacestrant clinical benefit was associated with decline in ESR1 mutant allele fraction.Elacestrant 400 mg orally once daily has an acceptable safety profile and demonstrated single-agent activity with confirmed partial responses in heavily pretreated patients with estrogen receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer. Notably, responses were observed in patients with ESR1 mutation as well as those with prior CDK4/6i and prior SERD. A phase III trial investigating elacestrant versus standard endocrine therapy is ongoing.