Phase 1 Study of combinatorial sorafenib, G-CSF, and plerixafor treatment in relapsed/refractory, FLT3-ITD-mutated acute myelogenous leukemia patients.

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Stroma-leukemia interactions mediated by CXCR4, CD44, VLA4, and their respective ligands contribute to therapy resistance in FLT3-ITD-mutated acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). We conducted a phase 1 study with the combination of sorafenib (a FLT3-ITD inhibitor), plerixafor (a SDF-1/CXCR4 inhibitor), and G-CSF (that cleaves SDF-1, CD44, and VLA4). Twenty-eight patients with relapsed/refractory FLT3-ITD-mutated AML were enrolled from December 2010 to December 2013 at three dose levels of sorafenib; 400, 600 and 800 mg twice daily and G-CSF and plerixafor were administered every other day for seven doses starting on day one. Sorafenib 800 mg twice daily was selected for the expansion phase. While no dose-limiting toxicities (DLT) were encountered in the four-week DLT window, hand-foot syndrome and rash were seen beyond the DLT window, which required dose reductions in most patients. The response rate was 36% (CR = 4, CRp = 4, Cri = 1, PR = 1) for the intention to treat population. Treatment resulted in 58.4 and 47 mean fold mobilization of blasts and CD34+38- stem/progenitor cells, respectively to the circulation. Expression of the adhesion molecules CXCR4, CD44, and VLA4 on circulating leukemia cells correlated negatively with the mobilization of CD34+/38-, CD34+/38-/123+ 'progenitor' cells (all p ≤ 0.002). Mass cytometry analysis of sequential samples from two patients demonstrated resistance emerging early on from sub-clones with persistent Akt and/or ERK signaling. In conclusion, the strategy of combined inhibition of FLT3 kinase and stromal adhesive interactions has promising activity in relapsed/refractory, FLT3-ITD-mutated AML, which warrants further evaluation in the front-line setting. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

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