Phosphorus has an essential role in cellular and extracellular metabolism; maintenance of normal phosphorus homeostasis is critical. Phosphorus homeostasis can be affected by diet and certain medications; some intravenous iron formulations can induce renal phosphate excretion and hypophosphatemia, likely through increasing serum concentrations of intact fibroblast growth factor 23. Case studies provide insights into two types of hypophosphatemia: acute symptomatic and chronic hypophosphatemia, while considering the role of pre-existing conditions and comorbidities, medications, and intravenous iron. This review examines phosphorus homeostasis and hypophosphatemia, with emphasis on effects of iron deficiency and iron replacement using intravenous iron formulations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.