The purpose of this study was to use a discrete-choice experiment methodology to understand the relative importance of the attributes of screening tests for type 1 diabetes among parents and pediatricians in the U.S.Online surveys presented hypothetical screening test profiles from which respondents chose their preferred test profile. Survey attributes were based on likely screening test options and included the mode of administration, where and when the test was conducted, the type of education and monitoring available to lower the risk of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), and whether a treatment was available that would delay onset of insulin dependence. Data were analyzed using random-parameters logit models.Parents placed the highest relative importance on monitoring programs that could reduce the risk of DKA to 1%, followed by treatment to delay onset of insulin dependence by 1 or 2 years, and, finally, avoiding a $50 out-of-pocket cost. Pediatricians placed equal importance on monitoring programs that reduced a patient's risk of DKA to 1% and on avoiding a $50 out-of-pocket cost for the screening test, followed by the option of a treatment to delay the onset of insulin dependence. The mode of administration and location and timing of the screening were much less important to parents and pediatricians.Parents and pediatricians preferred screening tests that were accompanied by education and monitoring plans to reduce the risk of DKA, had available treatment to delay type 1 diabetes, and had lower out-of-pocket costs.