The current article aims to review the latest literature on updates in therapeutics for alcohol-associated liver disease (ALD), integration of treatment of alcohol use disorder (AUD) into the management of ALD, and the role of liver transplantation for alcoholic hepatitis.ALD has recently become the most common indication for liver transplantation due to the increasing prevalence of AUD and the paucity of therapeutic options. There is broad consensus on the importance of early identification of AUD and the incorporation of its treatment in the management of ALD. New targets for treatment of alcoholic hepatitis include the gut-liver axis, anti-inflammatory drugs, antioxidants, and drugs with hepatic regenerative potential. Fecal transplantation in particular has had favorable outcomes at 1 year. n-Acetylcysteine in addition to corticosteroids, granulocyte colony stimulating factor, and IL-22 have also shown improved short-term outcomes. A number of other therapies are being studied in clinical trials and their results are anxiously awaited.In summary, there are several promising therapeutic options under clinical investigation for the treatment of alcoholic hepatitis and ALD; however, alcohol abstinence is key. In the absence of other effective therapies, liver transplantation for ALD remains a life-saving treatment with excellent patient and graft survival.
Margarita N German, Jessica Musto, Michael R Lucey