Natural gene therapy by reverse mosaicism leads to improved hematology in Fanconi anemia patients.

Fanconi anemia (FA) is characterized by chromosome fragility, bone marrow failure (BMF) and predisposition to cancer. As reverse genetic mosaicism has been described as "natural gene therapy" in patients with FA, we sought to evaluate the clinical course of a cohort of FA mosaic patients followed at referral centers in Spain over a 30-year period. This cohort includes patients with a majority of T-cells without chromosomal aberrations in the DEB-chromosomal breakage test. Relative to non-mosaic FA patients, we observed a higher proportion of adult patients in the cohort of mosaics, with a later age of hematologic onset and a milder evolution of (BMF). Consequently, the requirement for hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) was also lower. Additional studies allowed us to identify a sub-cohort of mosaic FA patients in whom the reversion was present in bone marrow (BM) progenitor cells leading to multilineage mosaicism. These multilineage mosaic patients are older, have a lower percentage of aberrant cells, have more stable hematology and none of them developed leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome when compared to non-mosaics. In conclusion, our data indicate that reverse mosaicism is a good prognostic factor in FA and is associated with more favorable long-term clinical outcomes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

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Authors: María José Ramírez, Roser Pujol, Juan Pablo Trujillo-Quintero, Jordi Minguillón, Massimo Bogliolo, Paula Río, Susana Navarro, José A Casado, Isabel Badell, Estela Carrasco, Judith Balmaña, Albert Català, Julián Sevilla, Cristina Beléndez, Bienvenida Argilés, Mónica López, Cristina Díaz de Heredia, Gayatri Rao, Eileen Nicoletti, Jonathan D Schwartz, Juan A Bueren, Jordi Surrallés