Metoprolol exerts a non-class effect against ischaemia-reperfusion injury by abrogating exacerbated inflammation.

Clinical guidelines recommend early intravenous β-blockers during ongoing myocardial infarction; however, it is unknown whether all β-blockers exert a similar cardioprotective effect. We experimentally compared three clinically approved intravenous β-blockers.Mice undergoing 45 min/24 h ischaemia-reperfusion (I/R) received vehicle, metoprolol, atenolol, or propranolol at min 35. The effect on neutrophil infiltration was tested in three models of exacerbated inflammation. Neutrophil migration was evaluated in vitro and in vivo by intravital microscopy. The effect of β-blockers on the conformation of the β1 adrenergic receptor was studied in silico. Of the tested β-blockers, only metoprolol ameliorated I/R injury [infarct size (IS) = 18.0% ± 0.03% for metoprolol vs. 35.9% ± 0.03% for vehicle; P 

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