Changes to cognition, both decline and improvement, are commonly reported after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). However, previous systematic reviews and meta-analyses have missed these subgroups by assessing whole-group-averages for cognitive outcomes. We sought to pool estimates to identify the prevalence of cognitive decline and improvement after TAVI, as well as associated factors for these outcomes. A systematic review identified 15 articles appropriate for meta-analysis. When robust cognitive change definitions were employed, the pooled prevalence of incident cognitive impairment up to 1-, 1 to 6-, and ≥6-months post-TAVI was 7%, 14%, and 12%, respectively. For cognitive improvement, the prevalence from 1 to 6 months and ≥6 months after TAVI was estimated to be 19% and 11%, respectively. Two factors were associated with these cognitive outcomes: (1) using a cerebral embolic protection device was associated with decreased prevalence of cognitive decline up to 1-week post-TAVI; (2) baseline cognitive impairment had a large association with post-TAVI cognitive improvement. In conclusion, cognitive decline and cognitive improvement are experienced by approximately 7% to 19% of patients after TAVI, respectively. Those with the lowest cognitive performance pre-TAVI appear to have the most to gain in terms of cognitive improvement post-TAVI. Identifying further predictive factors for cognitive decline and improvement post-TAVI will facilitate a personalized-medicine approach for cognitive care and prognosis.