Meta-Analysis of Anticoagulation Therapy for the Prevention of Cardiovascular Events in Patients with Peripheral Arterial Disease.

Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD) remains a major cause of morbidity and future cardiovascular events despite advancement in the surgical interventions and optimal medical therapy. The aim of our study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of anticoagulation (AC) therapy for reducing cardiovascular and limb events in patients with PAD. PUBMED, Medline, and Cochrane Library were searched through 2020 for randomized clinical trials comparing major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and risk of major bleeding (MB), between AC and standard of care (SOC) therapy, among patients with PAD. Meta-analysis was performed using weighted pooled absolute risk difference (RD) with 95% confidence interval (CI) and fixed effects model for overall and sub-groups of full (FD) and low dose (LD) AC therapies. Amongst 17,684 patients from 7 different studies, the addition of AC to SOC therapy was associated with MACE reduction (RD: -0.022, 95% CI: -0.033 to -0.012, P< 0.001) and increased MB (RD: 0.02, 95% CI: 0.014 to 0.025, P < 0.001). For FD, MACE reduction was (RD: -0.021, 95% CI: -0.042 to 0.001, P=0.061) and MB (RD: 0.036, 95% CI: 0.025 to 0.047, P<0.001). For LD, MACE reduction was (RD: -0.023, 95% CI: -0.035 to -0.011, P<0.001) and MB (RD: 0.011, 95% CI: 0.005 to 0.017, P<0.001). In conclusion, addition of AC to the current SOC therapy can mitigate future MACE events in patients with PAD albeit at risk of increased bleeding. LD AC is associated with an efficacy/ safety net benefit compared to FD AC therapy.

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Authors: Haroon Kamran, Rohit Malhotra, Serdar Farhan, Reza Masoomi, Aakash Garg, Amit Hooda, Reihonil Lascano, Daniel Han, Rami Tadros, Arthur Tarricone, Usman Baber, Roxana Mehran, Kurt Huber, Prakash Krishnan