Maternal Plasma Lipids During Pregnancy, Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 and Excess Foetal Growth.

Maternal lipids during pregnancy and placental growth factors are associated with excess foetal growth. However, how these factors interact to increase the risk of delivering large-for-gestational-age (LGA) neonates remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the relationship between maternal plasma triglyceride (TG) and free fatty acids (FAs) during pregnancy, cord blood insulin-like growth factors (IGF) and LGA. In a cell model, we studied the effect of different FAs on placental IGF-1 secretion.This cohort study included pregnant women with term pregnancy and without diabetes or hypertensive disorders in pregnancy. Maternal fasting plasma TG and FFAs were measured in the second trimester. Cord blood IGF-1, IGF-2 and IGF binding protein-1 and protein-3 were measured at the time of delivery. A human trophoblast cell line, 3A-sub-E, was used to evaluate the effect of different FAs on placental IGF-1 secretion.We recruited 598 pregnant women-neonate pairs. Maternal plasma TG (180 (152.5-185.5) vs. 166 (133-206) mg/dL, p=0.04) and cord blood IGF-1 concentrations (72.7 ± 23.0 vs. 54.1 ± 22.8 ng/mL, p=0.0001) were higher in the LGA group and were significantly associated with birth weight z-score. Maternal plasma free palmitic acid (PA) and stearic acid (SA), but not oleic acid (OA) or linoleic acid (LA), were significantly associated with cord blood IGF-1 concentrations. In 3A-sub-E cells, treatment with PA, SA, and LA, but not OA, induced IGF-1 expression and secretion.Certain FAs can induce placental IGF-1 secretion, which suggest a potential pathophysiology linking maternal plasma lipids and LGA.

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Authors: Kuan-Yu Chen, Shin-Yu Lin, Chien-Nan Lee, Hung-Tsung Wu, Ching-Hua Kuo, Han-Chun Kuo, Chia-Chi Chuang, Chun-Heng Kuo, Szu-Chi Chen, Kang-Chih Fan, Ming-Wei Lin, Chi-Tai Fang, Hung-Yuan Li