Male infertility due to testicular disorders.

Male infertility is defined as the inability to conceive following 1 year of regular unprotected intercourse. It is the causative factor in 50% of couples and a leading indication for assisted reproductive techniques (ART). Testicular failure is the most common cause of male infertility, yet the least studied to date.The review is an evidence-based summary of male infertility due to testicular failure with a focus on etiology, clinical assessment, and current management approaches. PubMed-searched articles and relevant clinical guidelines were reviewed in detail.Spermatogenesis is under multiple levels of regulation and novel molecular diagnostic tests of sperm function (reactive oxidative species and DNA fragmentation) have since been developed, and albeit currently remain as research tools. Several genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors provoking testicular failure have been elucidated during the last decade; nevertheless, 40% of cases are idiopathic, with novel monogenic genes linked in the etiopathogenesis. Microsurgical testicular sperm extraction (micro-TESE) and hormonal stimulation with gonadotropins, selective estrogen receptor modulators, and aromatase inhibitors are recently developed therapeutic approaches for men with the most severe form of testicular failure, nonobstructive azoospermia. However, high-quality clinical trials data is currently lacking.Male infertility due to testicular failure has traditionally been viewed as unmodifiable. In the absence of effective pharmacological therapies, delivery of lifestyle advice is a potentially important treatment option. Future research efforts are needed to determine unidentified factors causative in "idiopathic" male infertility and long-term follow-up studies of babies conceived through ART.

View the full article @ The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism

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