The physical and neuromental development of infants remains uncertain after fetal exposure to tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HBV. We aimed to investigate the safety of TDF therapy during the third trimester of pregnancy.Infants from a previous randomised controlled trial were recruited for our long-term follow-up (LTFU) study. Mothers with chronic hepatitis B were randomised to receive TDF therapy or no treatment during the third trimester. Infants' physical growth or malformation, bone mineral density (BMD) and neurodevelopment, as assessed using Bayley-III assessment, were examined at 192 weeks of age.Of 180 eligible infants, 176/180 (98%) were enrolled and 145/176 (82%) completed the LTFU (control group: 75; TDF-treated group: 70). In the TDF-treated group, the mean duration of fetal exposure to TDF was 8.57±0.53 weeks. Congenital malformation rates were similar between the two groups at week 192. The mean body weight of boys in the control and TDF-treated groups was significantly higher (19.84±3.46 kg vs. 18.47±2.34 kg; p=0.03) and within the normal range (18.48±2.35 kg vs. 17.80±2.50 kg; p=0.07), respectively, when compared with the national standard. Other prespecified outcomes (head circumference, height, BMD, and cognitive, motor, social-emotional, and adaptive behaviour measurements) were all comparable between the groups.Infants with fetal exposure to TDF had normal physical growth, BMD and neurodevelopment at week 192. Our findings provide evidence on the long-term safety of infants after fetal exposure to maternal TDF therapy for preventing hepatitis B transmission.NCT01488526.
Calvin Q Pan, Erhei Dai, Zhongping Duan, Guorong Han, Wenjing Zhao, Yuming Wang, Huaihong Zhang, Baoshen Zhu, Hongxiu Jiang, Shuqin Zhang, Xiaohu Zhang, Huaibin Zou, Xiuli Chen, Yu Chen