Patients lacking functional adenosine deaminase activity suffer from severe combined immunodeficiency (ADA SCID), which can be treated with ADA enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), or autologous HSCT with gene-corrected cells (gene therapy-GT). A cohort of 10 ADA SCID patients, aged 3 months to 15 years, underwent GT in a Phase II clinical trial between 2009 and 2012. Autologous bone marrow CD34+ cells were transduced ex vivo with the MND-ADA gamma-retroviral vector (gRV) and infused following busulfan reduced intensity conditioning. These patients were monitored in a long-term follow-up protocol over 8-11 years. Nine of ten patients have sufficient immune reconstitution to protect against serious infections, and have not needed to resume ERT or proceed to secondary allogeneic HSCT. ERT was restarted 6 months after GT in the oldest patient who had no evidence of benefit from GT. Four of nine evaluable patients with the highest gene marking and B cell numbers remain off immunoglobulin replacement therapy and responded to vaccines. There were broad ranges of responses in normalization of ADA enzyme activity and adenine metabolites in blood cells, and levels of cellular and humoral immune reconstitution. Outcomes were generally better in younger patients and those receiving higher doses of gene-marked CD34+ cells. No patient experienced a leukoproliferative event after GT, despite persisting prominent clones with vector integrations adjacent to proto-oncogenes. These long-term findings demonstrate enduring efficacy of GT for ADA SCID, but risks of genotoxicity with gRVs. (Clinicaltrials.gov #NCT00794508).
Bryanna C Reinhardt, Omar Habib, Kit L Shaw, Elizabeth K Garabedian, Denise Ann Carbonaro-Sarracino, Dayna Renee Terrazas, Beatriz Campo-Fernandez, Satiro De Oliveira, Theodore B Moore, Alan Ikeda, Barbara C Engel, Gregory M Podsakoff, Roger P Hollis, Augustine Fernandes, Connie R Jackson, Sally A Shupien, Suparna Mishra, Alejandra Davila, Jack Mottahedeh, Andrej Vitomirov, Wenzhao Meng, Aaron M Rosenfeld, Aoife M Roche, Pascha Hokama, Shantan Reddy, John K Everett, Xiaoyan Wang, Eline T Luning Prak, Kenneth Cornetta, Michael Hershfield, Robert Sokolic, Suk See De Ravin, Harry L Malech, Frederic D Bushman, Fabio Candotti, Donald B Kohn