ABCC8 mutations cause neonatal diabetes mellitus that can be transient (TNDM) or, less commonly, permanent (PNDM); ∼90% of individuals can be treated with oral sulfonylureas instead of insulin. Previous studies suggested that people with ABCC8-PNDM require lower sulfonylurea doses and have milder neurological features than those with KCNJ11-PNDM. However, these studies were short term and included combinations of ABCC8-PNDM and ABCC8-TNDM. We aimed to assess the long-term glycemic and neurological outcomes in sulfonylurea-treated ABCC8-PNDM.We studied all 24 individuals with ABCC8-PNDM diagnosed in the U.K., Italy, France, and U.S. known to transfer from insulin to sulfonylureas before May 2010. Data on glycemic control; sulfonylurea dose; adverse effects, including hypoglycemia; and neurological features were analyzed using nonparametric statistical methods.Long-term data were obtained for 21 of 24 individuals (median follow-up 10.0 [range 4.1-13.2] years). Eighteen of 21 remained on sulfonylureas without insulin at the most recent follow-up. Glycemic control improved on sulfonylureas (presulfonylurea vs. 1-year posttransfer HbA1c 7.2% vs. 5.7%, P = 0.0004) and remained excellent long term (1-year vs. 10-year HbA1c 5.7% vs. 6.5%, P = 0.04), n = 16. Relatively high doses were used (1-year vs. 10-year dose 0.37 vs. 0.25 mg/kg/day glyburide, P = 0.50) without any severe hypoglycemia. Neurological features were reported in 13 of 21 individuals; these improved following sulfonylurea transfer in 7 of 13. The most common features were learning difficulties (52%), developmental delay (48%), and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (38%).Sulfonylurea treatment of ABCC8-PNDM results in excellent long-term glycemic control. Overt neurological features frequently occur and may improve with sulfonylureas, supporting early, rapid genetic testing to guide appropriate treatment and neurodevelopmental assessment.