CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CD19-CAR) T cells induce high response rates in children and young adults (CAYAs) with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL), but relapse rates are high. The role for allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplant (alloHSCT) following CD19-CAR T-cell therapy to improve long-term outcomes in CAYAs has not been examined.We conducted a phase I trial of autologous CD19.28ζ-CAR T cells in CAYAs with relapsed or refractory B-ALL. Response and long-term clinical outcomes were assessed in relation to disease and treatment variables.Fifty CAYAs with B-ALL were treated (median age, 13.5 years; range, 4.3-30.4). Thirty-one (62.0%) patients achieved a complete remission (CR), 28 (90.3%) of whom were minimal residual disease-negative by flow cytometry. Utilization of fludarabine/cyclophosphamide-based lymphodepletion was associated with improved CR rates (29/42, 69%) compared with non-fludarabine/cyclophosphamide-based lymphodepletion (2/8, 25%; P = .041). With median follow-up of 4.8 years, median overall survival was 10.5 months (95% CI, 6.3 to 29.2 months). Twenty-one of 28 (75.0%) patients achieving a minimal residual disease-negative CR proceeded to alloHSCT. For those proceeding to alloHSCT, median overall survival was 70.2 months (95% CI, 10.4 months to not estimable). The cumulative incidence of relapse after alloHSCT was 9.5% (95% CI, 1.5 to 26.8) at 24 months; 5-year EFS following alloHSCT was 61.9% (95% CI, 38.1 to 78.8).We provide the longest follow-up in CAYAs with B-ALL after CD19-CAR T-cell therapy reported to date and demonstrate that sequential therapy with CD19.28ζ-CAR T cells followed by alloHSCT can mediate durable disease control in a sizable fraction of CAYAs with relapsed or refractory B-ALL (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01593696).
Nirali N Shah, Daniel W Lee, Bonnie Yates, Constance M Yuan, Haneen Shalabi, Staci Martin, Pamela L Wolters, Seth M Steinberg, Eva H Baker, Cindy P Delbrook, Maryalice Stetler-Stevenson, Terry J Fry, David F Stroncek, Crystal L Mackall