Localized immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis: novel insights including prognostic factors for local progression.

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In localized light chain amyloidosis (locAL), amyloidogenic light chains (aLC) are produced and deposited locally by a B-cell clone. We present 293 patients with immunohistochemically confirmed locAL. Lung (nodular pulmonary) with 63 patients was the most involved organ. The aLC was λ in 217 cases (κ:λ ratio 1:3). A local B-cell clone was identified in 30% of cases. Sixty-one (21%) had a concomitant autoimmune disorder (cAD). A monoclonal component (MC) were present in 101 (34%) patients and were more frequent in subjects with cAD (51% vs. 34%; P=0.03). Cigarette smoking was more prevalent in lung locAL (54% vs. 37%; P=0.018). After a median follow-up of 44 months, 16 patients died and 5- and 10-years locAL progression-free survival (PFS) were 62% and 44%. Interestingly, locAL-PFS was shorter among patients with an identified clonal infiltrate at amyloid deposition site (40 vs. 109 months; P=0.02) and multinuclear giant cells and/or an inflammatory infiltrate resulted in longer locAL-PFS in lung involvement (65 vs. 42 months; P=0.01). However, no differences in locAL PFS were observed in patients with cAD, a MC and involved organ site. Treatment was administered in 163 (54%) patients and was surgical in 135 (46%). Median locAL-PFS after first treatment was 56 months. Responders had longer locAL-PFS (78 vs. 17 months; P<0.001). Three patients with lung locAL and a MC were diagnosed as systemic AL amyloidosis at follow-up. In summary, locAL pathogenesis seems to be heterogeneous and the clonal infiltrate leads local progression. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

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