Liver transplantation (LT) has been proposed to be an effective salvage therapy even for the sickest patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). This large collaborative study was designed to address the current clinical practice and outcomes of ACLF patients wait listed (WL) for LT in Europe.Retrospective study including 308 consecutive ACLF patients, listed in 20 centres across 8 European countries, from January 2018 to June 2019.2677 patients received a LT, 1216 (45.4%) for decompensated cirrhosis (DC). Of these, 234 (19.2%) had ACLF at LT: ACLF-1, 58 (4.8%); ACLF-2, 78 (6.4%); and ACLF-3, 98 (8.1%). Wide variations were observed amongst countries: France and Germany had high rates of ACLF-2/3 (27-41%); Italy, Switzerland, Poland and Netherlands had medium rates (9-15%); and United Kingdom and Spain had low rates (3-5%) (p 4 mmol/L (HR 3.14, 95% CI 1.37-7.19), recent infection from multi-drug resistant organisms (HR 3.67, 95% CI 1.63-8.28), and renal replacement therapy (HR 2.74, 95% CI 1.37-5.51) were independent predictors of post-LT mortality. During the same period, 74 patients with ACLF died on the WL. In an intention-to-treat analysis, one-year survival of ACLF patients on the LT WL was 73% for ACLF-1 or -2 and 50% for ACLF-3.The results reveal wide variations in listing patients with ACLF in Europe despite favorable post-LT survival. Risk factors for mortality were identified, allowing a more precise prognostic assessment of ACLF patients for potential LT.Acute on chronic liver failure (ACLF) is a severe clinical condition for which liver transplantation is an effective therapeutic option. This study has demonstrated that in Europe, referral and access to liver transplantation (LT) for patients with ACLF needs to be harmonized to avoid inequities. Post-LT survival for patients with ACLF was >80% after 1 year and some factors have been identified for selecting patients with favorable outcomes.
Luca S Belli, Christophe Duvoux, Thierry Artzner, William Bernal, Sara Conti, Paolo A Cortesi, Sophie-Caroline Sacleux, George-Philippe Pageaux, Sylvie Radenne, Jonel Trebicka, Javier Fernandez, Giovanni Perricone, Salvatore Piano, Silvio Nadalin, Maria C Morelli, Silvia Martini, Wojciech G Polak, Krzysztof Zieniewicz, Christian Toso, Marina Berenguer, Claudia Iegri, Federica Invernizzi, Riccardo Volpes, Vincent Karam, René Adam, Francoise Faitot, Liane Rabinovich, Faouzi Saliba, Lucy Meunier, Mickael Lesurtel, Frank E Uschner, Costantino Fondevila, Baptiste Michard, Audrey Coilly, Magdalena Meszaros, Domitille Poinsot, Andreas Schnitzbauer, Luciano G De Carlis, Roberto Fumagalli, Paolo Angeli, Vincente Arroyo, Rajiv Jalan, ELITA/EF-CLIF working group